Lavoro e famiglia: gli ostacoli per il work-life bilance

Un’analisi dei principali ostacoli che impediscono ai genitori, e in modo particolari alle madri, di raggiungere un equilibrio vita-lavoro e un’analisi delle recenti misure adottate dal Governo per porre rimedio a tale situazione.

La denatalità rappresenta già da lungo tempo una questione particolarmente critica per il nostro Paese.

In Italia, anno dopo anno, si registrano sempre meno nascite e i recenti avvenimenti quali l’avvento della pandemia, il conflitto russo-ucraino, l’incertezza economica degli ultimi tempi così come il crescente problema climatico-ambientale non hanno di certo contribuito ad invertire questo trend.                             

Uno dei maggiori ostacoli alla natalità è rappresentato, oltre che dall’elevato precariato del mercato del lavoro italiano, dalla difficile conciliazione tra vita professionale e familiare che colpisce in particolar modo le donne.

In questo articolo andiamo ad approfondire quali sono le principali cause di questa inconciliabilità e quali policy sono state messe in campo per sostenere le famiglie con figli.

È risaputo che la cura dei figli per quanto possa essere piacevole è senz’altro un’attività molto impegnativa e in quanto tale assorbe tempo ed energie. Per poter conciliare lavoro di cura e attività lavorativa sono infatti necessarie politiche di sostegno per la prima infanzia, orari di lavoro flessibili e, dove possibile, il supporto di una rete familiare. Purtroppo, spesso i genitori non possono contare su tali supporti e pertanto non di rado si trovano di fronte a un bivio che li costringe a scegliere tra famiglia o carriera (specialmente le mamme).

L’Ispettorato Nazionale del Lavoro analizzando la relazione annuale sulle convalide delle dimissioni dei lavoratori del 2020 ha calcolato che il 38% circa dei genitori dimissionari (19.064 soggetti) vede nell’inefficienza dei servizi di cura una delle principali ragioni delle difficoltà a conciliare il lavoro con la cura della prole. In particolare, il 27,1% del totale dei dimissionari lamenta l’assenza di parenti di supporto, l’8,4% l’elevata incidenza dei costi di assistenza al neonato (asilo nido/baby-sitter) e il 2,1% il mancato accoglimento al nido (vedi figura 1).

Per quanto concerne questi ultimi due punti, l’offerta pubblica italiana di asili nido complessivamente non risulta in grado di soddisfare adeguatamente le domande di iscrizione potendo accogliere solo il 27,2% dei bambini italiani sotto i tre anni. Essa si presenta poi estremamente disomogenea, non solo a livello regionale ma anche a livello delle città. Di fatti, mentre le regioni del nord-est (33,6%), del centro (33,3%) e del nord-ovest (29,9%) superano o sono poco distanti dalla soglia target europea del 33% (valore che si sarebbe dovuto raggiungere nel 2010) le regioni del sud (13,3%) e le isole (13,8%), territori in cui non per nulla vi è anche minor occupazione femminile, se ne discostano notevolmente (dati Istat riferiti all’anno educativo 2020/2021). Nelle città, invece, la maggiore concentrazione di domande insoddisfatte si concentra nei comuni in periferia delle aree metropolitane.   

Figura 1 – Difficoltà a conciliare la cura della prole per ragioni legate ai servizi di cura, anno 2020
Figura 2 – Numero di posti per 100 bambini tra 0 e 2 anni, 2018-2020

L’ingente spesa dei servizi di cura, inoltre, risulta essere la causa più frequente della rinuncia al nido. Quest’ultima in diversi casi si è dimostrata equiparabile o addirittura superiore al salario dei genitori meno istruiti e meno qualificati (specialmente donne), fatto che ha quindi reso loro sconveniente continuare l’attività lavorativa (vedi figura 4).

Figura 3 – Percentuale di bambini 0-2 anni che utilizzano il nido per titolo di studio dei genitori,          Anno 2019

Figura 4 – Tasso d’occupazione delle madri (25-49    anni) con figli conviventi per presenza di figli minori, sesso e titolo di studio – Anno 2015


Infine, sempre l’Ispettorato Nazionale del Lavoro ha stimato che il 20% dei genitori dimissionari ricollega le proprie difficoltà di conciliazione dei tempi di lavoro e di accudimento dei figli all’azienda di lavoro. Nello specifico, l’11,9% lamenta condizioni di lavoro particolarmente gravose e/o difficilmente conciliabili con le esigenze di cura del bambino, il 4,6% una distanza eccessiva del luogo di lavoro, il 3,3% un orario di lavoro poco flessibile, lo 0,5% il cambiamento della sede e lo 0,3% la modifica delle proprie mansioni. 

Figura 5 – Difficoltà a conciliare il lavoro con la cura della prole per ragioni legate all’azienda di lavoro, anno 2020

Una volta definite le principali cause che rendono difficile conciliare lavoro e cura della prole occorre poi domandarsi come mai siano prevalentemente le donne a doverne subire le conseguenze. 

I dati dimostrano infatti che la distanza tra generi in termini di dimissioni legate alla nascita di un figlio (malgrado una riduzione negli anni) è ancora siderale e tende a crescere all’aumentare del numero di figli a carico, tanto è vero che nel 2019 su 51.558 risoluzioni consensuali del rapporto di lavoro il 72,9% riguardavano lavoratrici madri (vedi figura 6). Allo stesso modo evidenziano che le donne costituiscono la maggior parte dei dipendenti percettori di congedi parentali e che ne usufruiscono per periodi più lunghi:

nel 2019 una lavoratrice in congedo ha beneficiato, in media, di 58 giorni di congedo contro i 25 giorni per un lavoratore (dati Inps).

Figura 6 – Risoluzioni del rapporto del rapporto di lavoro per genere

Figura 7 – Lavoratori dipendenti del settore privato e agricolo: percentuale di beneficiari di congedo parentale per genere

Ciò è sicuramente da imputare, oltre che alle variabili di carattere personale, agli stereotipi di genere che

continuano a vedere nella donna il principale responsabile della gestione familiare, ai pregiudizi che ancora permangono tra i datori di lavoro e al fenomeno del gender pay gap che rende la rinuncia parziale o totale al proprio impiego da parte delle mamme economicamente più vantaggiosa rispetto a quella dei partner. 

Un ruolo analogo è poi ricoperto dalla cosiddetta child penalty ossia dalla penalizzazione reddituale legata alla maternità che persiste nel lungo periodo e che va a colpire unicamente le mamme. Secondo un’analisi INPS condotta su un campione di dati sui lavoratori dipendenti del settore privato tra il 1985 e il 2016, infatti, a 15 anni dalla maternità i salari lordi annuali delle madri sono inferiori del 53% di quelli delle donne senza figli rispetto al periodo antecedente la nascita, a fronte di un numero di contratti part-time quasi triplo e di circa 11 settimane lavorate in meno.

Figura 8 – Evoluzione di salari annuali intorno all’evento della maternità

Soffermiamoci ora sui primi passi mossi dal governo per migliorare il work-life balance dei genitori.

Dal 12 maggio 2022 è entrato in vigore il Family Act (legge “Deleghe al Governo per il sostegno e la valorizzazione della famiglia”) le cui principali riforme possono essere sintetizzate nei seguenti punti:

  1. sostituzione delle miriadi agevolazioni fiscali e monetarie con un assegno unico universale a favore dei genitori con figli a carico di età inferiore o uguale ai 21 anni il cui importo varia in base all’ISEE
  2. introduzione di un congedo obbligatorio della durata di 10 giorni a favore del padre lavoratore dipendente (da utilizzare nell’arco temporale che va dai 2 mesi precedenti ai 5 successivi al parto),
  3. riorganizzazione dei congedi parentali resi fruibili fino al compimento dei 12 anni del bambino (non più 6) con l’aumento da 6 a 9 dei mesi (sui 10 complessivi) per i quali si ha diritto ad un indennizzo pari al 30% della retribuzione (ciascun genitore può usufruire di tale indennità per 3 mesi, un ulteriore congedo di 3 mesi può poi essere richiesto ma solamente da uno dei due coniugi),
  4. estensione del diritto all’indennità di maternità alle lavoratrici autonome e libere professioniste, 
  5. garanzia che i datori di lavoro che stipulano accordi per l’esecuzione della prestazione di lavoro in modalità agile diano priorità a lavoratrici e lavoratori con figli fino a 12 anni di età o senza alcun limite di età nel caso di figli in condizioni di disabilità.

Tali misure sono senz’altro un buon punto di partenza per sostenere le famiglie con figli, tuttavia, ancora non bastano per incentivare l’occupazione femminile; cosa che nemmeno le proposte più recenti avanzate dal nuovo governo con il disegno di legge di bilancio 2023 sembrano fare (per saperne di più: https://www.ingenere.it/articoli/il-disegno-di-bilancio-della-disparita).   

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194 thoughts on “Lavoro e famiglia: gli ostacoli per il work-life bilance

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